Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion batteries) are widely used in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and renewable energy storage systems due to their high energy density and long cycle life. These batteries are composed of several key materials such as cathode materials, anode materials, electrolyte, separator and current collector, which enable them to operate. Other minor components in Li-ion batteries include binders, additives, and fillers, which improve electrode stability, electrolyte performance, and battery safety. Ongoing research and development focus on improving the energy density, safety, and cost-effectiveness of Li-ion batteries through advancements in materials, including the exploration of new cathode and anode materials, solid-state electrolytes, high-voltage electrolyte additives, and advanced manufacturing techniques.
A catalyst refers to a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without changing the overall standard Gibbs free energy change of the reaction. Ligands represent atoms, molecules, and ions that can bond with a central atom (metal or metalloid). In general, ligands will donate at least one electron when participating in a bond. Two-phase catalysis of catalysts and ligands is the first application in the field of fluorine chemistry. The method of self-fluorine two-phase catalysis has developed rapidly, and a large number of new fluorine-based catalysts and ligands (especially phosphines) have been obtained in the field of chemistry.