Purines are heterocyclic aromatic compounds composed of linked pyrimidine and imidazole rings. In mammals, purines are most commonly expressed in DNA and RNA (including the purines adenine and guanine), as well as single-molecule nucleotides (adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), cyclic AMP, and to a lesser extent guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Purines are also key elements of the following energy metabolism molecules: reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), and coenzyme Q. Purines can also act as direct neurotransmitters; for example, adenosine may interact with receptors to modulate cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) function.
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Tetrahydropyran is an organic compound consisting of a saturated six-membered ring containing five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. Tetrahydropyrans are common structural motifs in natural products and synthetic therapeutic molecules. In nature, these six-membered oxygen heterocycles are usually assembled by intramolecular reactions, including oxygen Michael addition or ring opening of epoxy alcohols. In fact, polyether natural products have been particularly extensively studied for their fascinating structures and important biological properties; these are often formed through endoselective epoxy open cascades.