Azetidines are an important class of saturated four-membered nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds. The research hotspots related to this structure mainly focus on two aspects: one is the research of pharmaceutical chemistry; the other is related to chiral azetidines, using rigid azetidine compounds as chiral ligands for asymmetric catalytic reactions. Many nitrogen-containing heterocycles play important roles in drug structures, and in many cases small structural changes can improve ligand selectivity and pharmacokinetic properties.
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Thiomorpholine is a nitrogen- and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compound with the molecular formula C4H9NS. It can be considered a thio analog of morpholine. Thiomorpholines are comparable to other secondary amines in terms of nucleophilicity and N-alkylation or acylation with alkyl groups or acid halides.
Morpholine contains secondary amine groups and has all the typical reactive characteristics of secondary amine groups. It can react with inorganic acids to form salts, and react with organic acids to form salts or amides, which can be subjected to alkylation reaction, and can also be reacted with ethylene oxide, ketone or Willgerodt reaction. Morpholine is a six-membered ring containing oxygen and nitrogen, and its alkalinity is much lower than that of its parent piperidine. The marketed morpholine drugs are mainly distributed in the fields of tumors, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, respiratory system diseases, digestive system diseases, infectious diseases and mental disorders.