A catalyst refers to a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without changing the overall standard Gibbs free energy change of the reaction. Ligands represent atoms, molecules, and ions that can bond with a central atom (metal or metalloid). In general, ligands will donate at least one electron when participating in a bond. Two-phase catalysis of catalysts and ligands is the first application in the field of fluorine chemistry. The method of self-fluorine two-phase catalysis has developed rapidly, and a large number of new fluorine-based catalysts and ligands (especially phosphines) have been obtained in the field of chemistry.
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The most common type of organic photodetector is the organic photodiode (OPD). The photodiode has a simple structure in which an active layer is sandwiched between a transparent electrode and a metal electrode. In contrast to OLEDs, organic photodiodes (OPDs) utilize the organic semiconductor to absorb incident light and convert it to electric current. The structure and working principle are more like organic solar cells. Among the various organic photodetectors, organic photodiodes (OPDs) have been the most widely studied due to their fast response, high sensitivity, and full use of the existing research base of organic photovoltaics (OPVs).